Algal biotechnology has advanced greatly in the past three decades. Many microalgae are now cultivated to produce bioactive substances. Odontella aurita is a marine diatom industrially cultured in outdoor open ponds and used for human nutrition. For the first time, we have systematically investigated the effects of culture conditions in cylindrical glass columns and flat-plate photobioreactors, including nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, silicon, and sulfur), light intensity and light path, on O. aurita cell growth and biochemical composition (protein, carbohydrate, beta-1,3-glucan, lipids, and ash). The optimal medium for photoautotrophic cultivation of O. aurita contained 17.65 mmol/L nitrogen, 1.09 mmol/L phosphorus, 0.42 mmol/L silicon, and 24.51 mmol/L sulfur, yielding a maximum biomass production of 6.1-6.8 g/L and 6.7-7.8 g/L under low and high light, respectively. Scale-up experiments were conducted with flat-plate photobioreactors using different light-paths, indicating that a short light path was more suitable for biomass production of O. aurita. Analyses of biochemical composition showed that protein content decreased while carbohydrate (mainly composed of beta-1,3-glucan) increased remarkably to about 50% of dry weight during the entire culture period. The highest lipid content (19.7% of dry weight) was obtained under 0.11 mmol/L silicon and high light conditions at harvest time. Fatty acid profiles revealed that 80% were C-14, C-16, and C-20, while arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) accounted for 1.6%-5.6% and 9%-20% of total fatty acids, respectively. High biomass production and characteristic biochemical composition profiles make O. aurita a promising microalga for the production of bioactive components, such as EPA and beta-1,3-glucan.
We investigated the effects of dried macroalga Gracilaria lemaneiformis (Rhodophyta) on photosynthesis of the bloom-forming microalga Chaetoceros curvisetus. C. curvisetus was cultured with different amounts of dried G. lemaneiformis under controlled laboratory conditions. We measured the photosynthetic oxygen evolution rate and established the chlorophyll a fluorescence transient (OJIP) curve coupled with its specific parameters. We observed concentration-dependent and time-dependent relationships between dried G. lemaneiformis and inhibition of photosynthesis in C. curvisetus. Co-culture with dried G. lemaneiformis also resulted in a decrease in the light-saturated maximum photosynthetic oxygen evolution rate (P-max) in C. curvisetus, and a decrease in the OJIP curve along with its specific parameters; the maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII (F-v/F-m), the amount of active PSII reaction centers per excited cross section at t=0 and t=t(FM) (RC/CS0 and RC/CSm, respectively), the absorption flux per excited cross section at t=0 (ABS/CS0), and the efficiency with which a trapped exciton moves an electron into the electron transport chain (psi(0)). The dark respiration rate (R-d) increased in C. curvisetus co-cultured with dried G. lemaneiformis. The JIP-test and the oxygen evolution results indicated that dried G. lemaneiformis decreased the number of active reaction centers, blocked the electron transport chain, and damaged the oxygen-evolving complex of C. curvisetus. This result indicated that dried fragments of G. lemaneiformis could effectively inhibit photosynthesis of C. curvisetus, and thus, could serve as a functional product to control and mitigate C. curvisetus blooms.
In this paper, we investigated the effects of temperature, oxygen, antioxidants, and corn germ oil on the stability of astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis under different storage conditions, and changes in the composition of astaxanthin esters during storage using high performance liquid chromatography and spectrophotometry. Oxygen and high temperatures (22-25 degrees C) significantly reduced the stability of astaxanthin esters. Corn germ oil and antioxidants (ascorbic acid and vitamin E) failed to protect astaxanthin from oxidation, and actually significantly increased the instability of astaxanthin. A change in the relative composition of astaxanthin esters was observed after 96 weeks of long-term storage. During storage, the relative amounts of free astaxanthin and astaxanthin monoesters declined, while the relative amount of astaxanthin diesters increased. Thus, the ratio of astaxanthin diester to monoester increased, and this ratio could be used to indicate if astaxanthin esters have been properly preserved. If the ratio is greater than 0.2, it suggests that the decrease in astaxanthin content could be higher than 20%. Our results show that storing algal powder from H. pluvialis or other natural astaxanthin products under vacuum and in the dark below 4 degrees C is the most economical and applicable storage method for the large-scale production of astaxanthin from H. pluvialis. This storage method can produce an astaxanthin preservation rate of at least 80% after 96 weeks of storage.
A superoxide dismutase was purified from Enteromorpha linza using a simple and safe procedure, which comprised phosphate buffer extraction, ammonium sulphate precipitation, ion exchange chromatography on Q-sepharose column, and gel filtration chromatography on Superdex 200 10/300GL. The E. linza superoxide dismutase (El SOD) was purified 103.6-fold, and a yield of 19.1% and a specific activity of 1 750 U/mg protein were obtained. The SDS-PAGE exhibited El SOD a single band near 23 kDa and the gel filtration study showed El SOD's molecular weight is near 46 kDa in nondenatured condition, indicating it's a homodimeric protein. El SOD is an iron-cofactored superoxide dismutase (Fe-SOD) because it was inhibited by hydrogen peroxide, insensitive to potassium cyanide. The optimal temperature for its maximal enzyme activity was 35 degrees C, and it still had 29.8% relative activity at 0 degrees C, then El SOD can be classified as a cold-adapted enzyme. El SOD was stable when temperature was below 40 degrees C or the pH was within the range of 5-10. The first 11 N-terminal amino acids of El SOD were ALELKAPPYEL, comparison of its N-terminal sequence with other Fe-SOD N-terminal sequences at the same position suggests it is possibly a chloroplastic Fe-SOD.
The water vapor permeability (WVP) of films is important when developing pharmaceutical applications. Films are frequently used as coatings, and as such directly influence the quality of the medicine. The optimization of processing conditions for sodium alginate films was investigated using response surface methodology. Single-factor tests and Box-Behnken experimental design were employed. WVP was selected as the response variable, and the operating parameters for the single-factor tests were sodium alginate concentration, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) concentration and CaCl2 solution immersion time. The coefficient of determination (R-2) was 0.97, indicating statistical significance. A minimal WVP of 0.389 8 g.mm/(m(2).h.kPa) was achieved under the optimum conditions. These were found to be a sodium alginate concentration, CMC concentration and CaCl2 solution immersion time at 8.04%, 0.13%, and 12 min, respectively. This provides a reference for potential applications in manufacturing film-coated hard capsule shells.
Metallothioneins (MTs) are a group of low molecular weight cysteine-rich proteins capable of binding heavy metal ions. A cadmium metallothionein (EcMT-Cd) cDNA with a 189 bp open reading frame (ORF) that encoded a 62 amino acid protein was obtained from Exopalaemon carinicauda. Seventeen cysteines were in the deduced amino acid sequence, and the cysteine (Cys)-rich characteristic was revealed in different metallothioneins in other species. In addition, the deduced amino acid sequence did not contain any aromatic amino acid residues, such as tyrosine (Tyr), tryptophan (Trp), and phenylalanine (Phe). EcMT-Cd mRNA was expressed in all tested tissues (the ovary, muscle, stomach, and hepatopancreas), and its expression profiles in the hepatopancreas were very different when shrimps were exposed to seawater containing either 50 mu mol/L CuSO4 or 2.5 mu mol/L CdCl2. The expression of EcMT-Cd was significantly up-regulated in shrimp exposed to CuSO4 for 12 h and down-regulated in shrimps exposed to CdCl2 for 12 h. After 24 h exposure to both metals, its expression was down-regulated. By contrast, at 48 h the EcMT-Cd was up-regulated in test shrimps exposed to CdCl2. The transcript of EcMT-Cd was very low or even absent before the zoea stage, and the expression of EcMT-Cd was detected from mysis larvae-I, then its expression began to rise. In conclusion, a cadmium MT exists in E. carinicauda that is expressed in different tissues and during different developmental stages, and responds to the challenge with heavy metal ions, which provides a clue to understanding the function of cadmium MT.
We collected nine Enteromorpha specimens from the coast of Yantai and evaluated their diversity based on analyses of their ITS (internal transcribed spacer) and 5S rDNA NTS (non-transcribed spacer) sequences. The ITS sequences showed slight nucleotide divergences between Enteromorpha linza and Enteromorpha prolifera. In contrast, multiple highly variable regions were found in the ITS region of Enteromorpha flexuosa. In general, there were more variable sites in the NTS region than in the ITS region in the three species. The variations in 5S rDNA NTS sequences indicated that the molecular diversity of Enteromorpha from the coast of Yantai is very high. However, a phylogenetic tree constructed using 5S rDNA NTS sequence data indicated that genetic differences were not directly related to geographical distribution.
The Sox proteins play critical roles during the development of animals, including sex determination and central nervous system development. In this study, the SoxB2 gene was cloned from a mollusk, the Zhikong scallop (Chlamys farreri), and characterized with respect to phylogeny and tissue distribution. The full-length cDNA and genomic DNA sequences of C. farreri SoxB2 (Cf SoxB2) were obtained by rapid amplification of cDNA ends and genome walking, respectively, using a partial cDNA fragment from the highly conserved DNA-binding domain, i.e., the High Mobility Group (HMG) box. The full-length cDNA sequence of Cf SoxB2 was 2 048 bp and encoded 268 amino acids protein. The genomic sequence was 5 551 bp in length with only one exon. Several conserved elements, such as the TATA-box, GC-box, CAAT-box, GATA-box, and Sox/sry-sex/testis-determining and related HMG box factors, were found in the promoter region. Furthermore, real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR assays were carried out to assess the mRNA expression of Cf SoxB2 in different tissues. SoxB2 was highly expressed in the mantle, moderately in the digestive gland and gill, and weakly expressed in the gonad, kidney and adductor muscle. In male and female gonads at different developmental stages of reproduction, the expression levels of Cf SoxB2 were similar. Considering the specific expression and roles of SoxB2 in other animals, in particular vertebrates, and the fact that there are many pallial nerves in the mantle, cerebral ganglia in the digestive gland and gill nerves in gill, we propose a possible essential role in nervous tissue function for SoxB2 in C. farreri
The occurrence of the giant jellyfish, Nemopilema nomurai, has been a frequent phenomenon in the Yellow Sea. However, the relationship between the giant jellyfish and protozoa, in particular ciliates, remains largely unknown. We investigated the distribution of nanoflagellates, ciliates, Noctiluca scintillans, and copepod nauplii along the transect 33 degrees N in the Yellow Sea in June and August, 2012, during an occurrence of the giant jellyfish, and in October of that year when the jellyfish was absent. The organisms studied were mainly concentrated in the surface waters in summer, while in autumn they were evenly distributed in the water column. Nanoflagellate, ciliate, and copepod nauplii biomasses increased from early June to August along with jellyfish growth, the first two decreased in October, while N. scintillans biomass peaked in early June to 3 571 mu g C/L and decreased in August and October. In summer, ciliate biomass greatly exceeded that of copepod nauplii (4.61-15.04 mu g C/L vs. 0.34-0.89 mu g C/L). Ciliate production was even more important than biomass, ranging from 6.59 to 34.19 mu g C/(L.d) in summer. Our data suggest a tight and positive association among the nano-, micro-, and meso-zooplankton in the study area. Statistical analysis revealed that the abundance and total production of ciliate as well as loricate ciliate biomass were positively correlated with giant jellyfish biomass, indicating a possible predator-prey relationship between ciliates and giant jellyfish. This is in contrast to a previous study, which reported a significant reduction in ciliate standing crops due to the mass occurrence of N. nomurai in summer. Our study indicates that, with its high biomass and, in particular, high production ciliates might support the mass occurrence of giant jellyfish.
In recent years, red tides occurred frequently in coastal areas worldwide. Various methods based on the use of clay, copper sulfate, and bacteria have been successful in controlling red tides to some extent. As a new defensive agent, marine microorganisms are important sources of compounds with potent inhibitory bioactivities against red-tide microalgae, such as Gymnodinium sp. (Pyrrophyta). In this study, we isolated a marine bacterium, HSB07, from seawater collected from Hongsha Bay, Sanya, South China Sea. Based on its 16S rRNA gene sequence and biochemical characteristics, the isolated strain HSB07 was identified as a member of the genus Halomonas. A crude ethyl acetate extract of strain HSB07 showed moderate inhibition activity against Gymnodinium sp. in a bioactive prescreening experiment. The extract was further separated into fractions A, B, and C by silica gel column chromatography. Fractions B and C showed strong inhibition activities against Gymnodinium. This is the first report of inhibitory activity of secondary metabolites of a Halomonas bacterium against a red-tide-causing microalga.
The capability of Scenedesmus obliquus to remove cations (K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+) from saline-alkaline water was investigated at different salinities (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25) and carbonate alkalinities (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 mmol/L). K+, Na+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ in saline-alkaline water were efficiently removed by S. obliquus. The maximum removal of the cations (29.37 mg for K+, 185.85 mg for Na+, 23.07 mg for Ca2+, 66.14 mg for Mg2+) occurred at salinity 25. The maximum removal of K+ (2.28 mg), Na+ (6.62 mg), Ca2+ (1.01 mg), and Mg2+ (0.62 mg) occurred at carbonate alkalinities of 25 mmol/L for K+, 35 mmol/L for Na+, 20 mmol/L for Ca2+, and 25 mmol/L for Mg2+, respectively. Under a salinity stress, the concentration of Na+ in S. obliquus increased significantly, while that of K+ decreased significantly. The concentrations of Ca2+ and Mg2+ decreased as well. The ratios of K+/Na+, Ca2+/Na+, and Mg2+/Na+ were significantly lower in all salinity treatments than those of the control. Under alkaline stress, the concentrations of Na+ and K+ in S. obliquus decreased significantly and the ratios of K+/Na+, Ca2+/Na+, and Mg2+/Na+ were significantly higher in all treatments than in the control. Moreover, the concentrations of Ca2+ and Mg2+ in S. obliquus at alkalinities of 5-10 mmol/L were significantly higher than those of the other treatments. The removal of Na+ by S. obliquus mainly occurs through biosorption, and Mg2+ and Ca2+ were removed through both biosorption and bioaccumulation.
A survey on the hyperbenthic communities was carried out in the coastal waters of Sishili Bay in the Yellow Sea in July 2009, to investigate the impact of putative anthropogenic activities related to the presence of a sewage outfall, a harbor and an aquaculture site on the benthic ecosystem. An Agassiz net trawl was used to collect hyperbenthos at 10 sampling stations. Species, diversity, abundance, and biomass were analyzed against water sample data and historical data obtained from records from nearby Yantai City. Fifty-two species were identified in the region, of which Crustacea were the most abundant taxon, followed by Echinodermata. Dominant species included five crustaceans, two echinoderms, one mollusk and one fish species. The results of a BIOENV analysis show that the concentrations of NO3-N and Chl-a were slightly positively correlated with hyperbenthic community structure, while other factors were negatively correlated, including sediment grain size and the percentage of TN and TOC in sediment. Abundance-Biomass Comparison (ABC method) curves indicate that the hyperbenthos in Sishili Bay had been disturbed by putative sources of human activities. Eight out of 10 stations were classified as "moderately perturbed" to "perturbed".
Sargassum muticum is one of the most abundant and conspicuous native macroalgae species on the northern coasts of China. It often forms large-scale seaweed beds in subtidal zones. This investigation was designed to understand the intraspecific genetic relationships of this alga based on samples collected from four northern coastal sites of China, and to evaluate gamete release and growth capacity in laboratory conditions. The nuclear internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) sequences of 16 samples from four locations were identical. Based on cox3 gene and partial rbcLS operon sequences, intraspecific genetic variability was detected with three and two ribotypes, respectively. Temperature, not irradiance, was shown to significantly affect gamete release and fertilization. Elevated temperature and irradiance enhanced the growth of germlings and vegetative branchlets. Maximum growth rate of germlings was detected at 18-24 degrees C and an irradiance of 60-100 mu mol photons/(m(2).s). Under ambient conditions (12-25 degrees C and 60-125 mu mol photons/(m(2).s)), relative growth rate of young branchlets could reach 7.5%/d.
Eleutheronema rhadinum is a potential commercial fisheries species and is subject to intense exploitation in China. Knowledge on the population structure of E. rhadinum in Chinese coastal waters, which is important for sustainable exploitation and proper resource management, is lacking. In the present study, the genetic diversity and population structure of E. rhadinum were evaluated using a 564-base pair fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. A total of 76 specimens were collected from three localities around the East (Qidong and Zhoushan) and South China Seas (Zhuhai). Among these individuals, nine polymorphic sites were detected and 11 distinct haplotypes were defined. High levels of haplotype diversity (h = 0.759 +/- 0.035) and low levels of nucleotide diversity (pi=0.001 98 +/- 0.003 26) were observed in these populations. Hierarchical analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated that 96.72% of the genetic variation occurred within the populations, whereas 3.28% occurred among populations. No significant genealogical branches or clusters were recognized on the neighbor-joining tree. Intra-group variation among populations was significant (phi(st)=0.032 85, P<0.01). These results suggest that E. rhadinum populations in the East and South China Seas have developed divergent genetic structures. Tests of neutral evolution and mismatch distribution suggest that E. rhadinum may have experienced a population expansion. The present study provides basic information for the conservation and sustainable exploitation of this species.
The Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass (YSCWM) was suggested as an over-summering site of the dominant copepod species Calanus sinicus in coastal Chinese seas. Population abundance and structure were investigated by monthly sampling along three transects across the northern boundary of the YSCWM during 2009-2010. Results show that thermal stratification existed from June to October and that the vertical thermal difference increased with depth. Generally, total abundance was lowest in October and highest in June, and the female/male sex ratio was highest in February and lowest in August. Evident spatial differences in abundance were observed during the existence of the YSCWM. In June, total abundance averaged 158.8 ind/m(3) at well-stratified stations, and 532.1 ind/m(3) at other stations. Similarly, high abundances of 322.0 and 324.4 ind/m(3) were recorded from July to August inside the YSCWM, while the abundance decreased from 50.4 to 1.9 ind/m(3) outside the water mass. C. sinicus distribution tended to even out over the study area in September when the YSCWM disappeared. We believe that the YSCWM may retard population recruitment in spring and preserve abundant cohorts in summer. The summer population was transported to neritic waters in autumn. In addition to low temperatures, stable vertical structure was also an essential condition for preservation of the summer population. C. sinicus can survive the summer in marginal areas in high abundance, but the population structure is completely different in terms of C5 proportion and sex ratio.
Fluorescence-based maximal photochemical efficiency, F-v/F-m, is widely used as an indicator to photosynthetic competence in marine systems. It has been considered a useful parameter diagnosing the nutrient stress on phytoplankton photosynthesis, but many studies argue its usefulness. In the present study, we try to find a temporal relationship between F-v/F-m and nitrogen concentration, and provide a possible explanation on the controversy. We continuously measured F-v/F-m and nitrogen concentration once every 10 days from September 2003 to March 2004 at two stations in Jiaozhou Bay, northern China. It was found that F-v/F-m did not significantly correlate to synchronous nitrogen concentration, but the variation (i.e. the change between two adjacent cruises) of nitrogen concentration of the previous cruise and the variation of F-v/F-m of the current cruise were strongly correlated. This result indicates that a time lag exists between the variation of nutrient status and the subsequent F-v/F-m response. Length of the time lag seems just matched the interval of our measurements (10 days). In the field, direct dependence of F-v/F-m on nitrogen concentration may not be found because of the lagged response of F-v/F-m to nitrogen concentration variations or physiological acclimation. Our results provide a possible way to explain the previously reported conflicting results on the relationship between F-v/F-m and nutrient status. To give a more-accurate estimate about the length of the time lag, an investigation that includes more frequent measurements is needed.
Nitrogen deficiency is an effective strategy for enhancing lipid production in microalgae. Close relationships exist among lipid production, microalgal species, and nitrogen sources. We report growth, lipid accumulation, and fatty acid composition in four microalgae (Chlorococcum ellipsoideum UTEX972, Chlorococcum nivale LB2225, Chlorococcum tatrense UTEX2227, and Scenedesmus deserticola JNU19) under nitrate-and urea-nitrogen deficiencies. We found three patterns of response to nitrogen deficiency: Type-A (decrease in biomass and increase in lipid content), Type-B (reduction in both biomass and lipid content), and Type-C (enhancement of both biomass and lipid content). Type-C microalgae are potential candidates for large-scale oil production. Chlorococcum ellipsoideum, for example, exhibited a neutral lipid production of up to 239.6 mg/(L.d) under urea-nitrogen deficiency. In addition, nitrogen deficiency showed only a slight influence on lipid fractions and fatty acid composition. Our study provides useful information for further screening hyper-lipid microalgal strains for biofuel production.
Five galatheid squat lobster species belonging to four genera of two galatheid families are reported for the first time from Chinese waters, namely Lauriea simulata Macpherson and Robainas-Barcia, 2013, Phylladiorhynchus ikedai (Miyake and Baba, 1965), Phylladiorhynchus integrirostris (Dana, 1852), Babamunida sp., and Raymunida elegantissima (de Man, 1902). The genera Lauriea Baba, 1971 and Babamunida Cabezas, Macpherson, and Machordom, 2008 have not previously been recorded from Chinese waters.
The present paper reports five species of squat lobster, genus Agononida Baba and de Saint Laurent, 1996, of which A. squamosa (Henderson, 1885) and A. cf. variabilis (Baba, 1988) were not previously reported in Chinese waters. All the specimens are kept in the Marine Biological Museum collection in the Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao. To date, there have been 11 species of this genus recorded from China's seas. A key to those species is provided in this paper.
Over the past 20 years, sonar imaging technology particularly for the high-technology sector has been a focus of research, in which many developed countries, especially those with coast lines, have been competing with each other. It has seen a rapid development with increasing widespread applications that has played an important and irreplaceable role in underwater exploration with great prospects for social, economic, scientific, and military benefits. The fundamental techniques underlying sonar imaging, including multi-beamforming, synthetic-aperture and inverse synthetic-aperture sonar, acoustic lensing, and acoustical holography, are described in this paper. This is followed by a comprehensive and systematic review on the advantages and disadvantages of these imaging techniques, applicability conditions, development trends, new ideas, new methods, and improvements in old methods over recent years with an emphasis on the situation in China, along with a bold and constructive prediction to some development characteristics of sonar imaging technology in the near future in China. The perspectives presented in this paper are offered with the idea of providing some degree of guidance and promotion of research on sonar imaging technology.
The Spratly (Nansha) Islands in the South China Sea have considerable economic and important militarily strategic status. Ocean color remote sensing is an effective mean of surveying and research and especially it is useful for areas that are difficult to access, such as Thitu Island and its reef in the Spratly Islands. The Hyper-spectral Optimization Process Exemplar (HOPE) model, developed by Lee et al. (1999) is a rapid and robust bathymetry method that uses hyper-spectral remote sensing. In this study, using Hyperion hyper-spectral sensor data and HOPE, we derive bathymetry and bottom albedo measurements around Thitu Island and its reef. We compare the distribution of bottom depths from C-MAP with that derived from the Hyperion data. The retrieved bathymetry results correlate well with the distribution obtained from the bathymetry contour from 2.0 to 20 m. The average difference between Hyperion and C-MAP for two selected transects was 17.1% (n=59, R=0.848, RMSE=2.342) and 10.9% (n=59, R-2=0.834, RMSE=0.463). The retrieved bottom albedo is homogeneous in the lagoon and significantly non-homogeneous around the lagoon. These results indicate that HOPE could be very useful for bathymetry studies for the islands of the South China Sea.
Zonal heat advection (ZHA) plays an important role in the variability of the thermal structure in the tropical Pacific Ocean, especially in the western Pacific warm pool (WPWP). Using the Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA) Version 2.02/4 for the period 1958-2007, this paper presents a detailed analysis of the climatological and seasonal ZHA in the tropical Pacific Ocean. Climatologically, ZHA shows a zonal-band spatial pattern associated with equatorial currents and contributes to forming the irregular eastern boundary of the WPWP (EBWP). Seasonal variation of ZHA with a positive peak from February to July is most prominent in the Nino3.4 region, where the EBWP is located. The physical mechanism of the seasonal cycle in this region is examined. The mean advection of anomalous temperature, anomalous advection of mean temperature and eddy advection account for 31%, 51%, and 18% of the total seasonal variations, respectively. This suggests that seasonal changes of the South Equatorial Current induced by variability of the trade winds are the dominant contributor to the anomalous advection of mean temperature and hence, the seasonality of ZHA. Heat budget analysis shows that ZHA and surface heat flux make comparable contributions to the seasonal heat variation in the Nino3.4 region, and that ZHA cools the upper ocean throughout the calendar year except in late boreal spring. The connection between ZHA and EBWP is further explored and a statistical relationship between EBWP, ZHA and surface heat flux is established based on least squares fitting.
Nonlinear development of salinity perturbations in the Atlantic thermohaline circulation (THC) is investigated with a three-dimensional ocean circulation model, using the conditional nonlinear optimal perturbation method. The results show two types of optimal initial perturbations of sea surface salinity, one associated with freshwater and the other with salinity. Both types of perturbations excite decadal variability of the THC. Under the same amplitude of initial perturbation, the decadal variation induced by the freshwater perturbation is much stronger than that by the salinity perturbation, suggesting that the THC is more sensitive to freshwater than salinity perturbation. As the amplitude of initial perturbation increases, the decadal variations become stronger for both perturbations. For salinity perturbations, recovery time of the THC to return to steady state gradually saturates with increasing amplitude, whereas this recovery time increases remarkably for freshwater perturbations. A nonlinear (advective) feedback between density and velocity anomalies is proposed to explain these characteristics of decadal variability excitation. The results are consistent with previous ones from simple box models, and highlight the importance of nonlinear feedback in decadal THC variability.
This paper attempts to analyze in detail the remote influence of the Indian Ocean Basin warming on the Northwest Pacific (NWP) during the year of decaying El Nino. Observation data and the Fast Ocean-Atmosphere coupled Model 1.5 were used to investigate the triggering conditions under which the remote influence is formed between the positive sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly in the North Indian Ocean and the Anomalous Northwest Pacific anticyclone (ANWPA). Our research show that it is only when there is a contributory background wind field over the Indian Ocean, i.e., when the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) reaches its peak, that the warmer SST anomaly in the North Indian Ocean incites significant easterly wind anomalies in the lower atmosphere of the Indo-West tropical Pacific. This then produces the remote influence on the ANWPA. Therefore, the SST anomaly in the North Indian Ocean might interfere with the prediction of the East Asia Summer Monsoon in the year of decaying El Nino. Both the sustaining effect of local negative SST anomalies in the NWP, and the remote effect of positive SST anomalies in the North Indian Ocean on the ANWPA, should be considered in further research.